From the mid-19th century to 1930, about 1.5 million Swedes emigrated, out of a population of 3.5 million in 1850 and slightly more than 6 million in 1930.Industry did not begin to grow until the 1890s, although it then developed rapidly between 19 and transformed Sweden into one of Europe’s leading industrial nations after World War II.
The foundations of the Swedish state were laid during the reign of Gustav Vasa (1523–60).
The church was nationalised, its estates confiscated by the crown, and the Protestant Reformation was introduced.
Power was concentrated in the hands of the king and hereditary monarchy came into force in 1544.
The Viking Age (800–1050 AD) was characterised by a significant expansion of activity, in Sweden’s case largely toward the east.
Many Viking expeditions set off from Sweden to both plunder and trade along the Baltic coast and the rivers that stretched deep into present-day Russia.
Finland, provinces in northern Germany and the present-day Baltic republics also belonged to Sweden, and after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 and the Peace of Roskilde with Denmark in 1658, Sweden was a great power in northern Europe.