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When a school’s proportion of students at risk of failure grows, the consequences of disadvantage are exacerbated.

In schools with high proportions of disadvantaged children, It is inconceivable that significant gains can be made in the achievement of black children who are so severely isolated.

Black neighborhood poverty is thus more multigenerational, while white neighborhood poverty is more episodic.

From the perspective of children, think of it this way: black children in low-income neighborhoods are more likely to have parents who also grew up in low-income neighborhoods than white or Hispanic children in low-income neighborhoods.

And the racial isolation of schools cannot be remedied without undoing the racial isolation of the neighborhoods in which they are located. The Myth of De Facto Segregation In 2007, the Supreme Court made integration more difficult when it prohibited the Louisville and Seattle school districts from making racial balance a factor in assigning students to schools, in cases where applicant numbers exceeded available seats.The conclusion rests on two distinct analyses: – First, social and economic disadvantage – not only poverty, but a host of associated conditions – depresses student performance, and – Second, concentrating students with these disadvantages in racially and economically homogenous schools depresses it further.The schools that the most disadvantaged black children attend today are segregated because they are located in segregated neighborhoods far distant from truly middle class neighborhoods.Breyer argued that school districts should be permitted voluntarily to address de facto racial homogeneity, even if not constitutionally required to do so.But he accepted that for the most part, Louisville and Seattle schools were not segregated by state action and thus not constitutionally required to desegregate. Certainly, Northern schools have not been segregated by policies assigning blacks to some schools and whites to others; they are segregated because their neighborhoods are racially homogenous.We cannot desegregate schools without desegregating these neighborhoods, and our ability to desegregate the neighborhoods in which segregated schools are located is hobbled by historical ignorance.

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